A. Background of the Research
English has been used by people in different countries and different languages as a means of communication. In order to educate Indonesian people have a good competence in using English as a means of communication, Indonesian government has included English as a foreign language which needs to be studied at schools or colleges.
For achieving a better competence in using English as a means of communication, English can be taught starting from elementary school level. This states that only by an early start could language mastery be assured. Besides, preadolescents can learn a foreign language without self-consciousness, they are free of the inhibition of the adult learner. Moreover, the early start instills respect for other people and fosters tolerance. Finally, the students who begin early will be much further along in high school and in college.
English is taught in elementary school level as a local content which its aim is to make the students having listening, speaking, reading and writing skills with emphasis on communicative competence through selected topics, that is the local community need such as industry and tourism in Central Java. This means that the implementation of teaching English for elementary school students which get English as a local content must be different from the implementation of teaching English for the students in the higher level of education such as in Junior High School or Senior High School which get English as a subject matter. Students in Yunior High School level able to work on concrete objects or events which are narrower to themselves and not on verbal statements. This means that students should be engaged in the activities which can give them opportunities to perform mental operations through concrete objects or here and now events when they are learning English.
One of the English skills which should be learnt by Yunior High School students is speaking. This skill takes a great importance because people who know a language are referred to as “speakers” of that language, as if speaking included all other kinds of knowing; and many if not most foreign language learners are primarily interested in learning to speak. In other words, someone’s knowledge about a language can be measured through his speaking.
Based on the pre-observation conducted in the first grade of SMP Negeri 1 Wonogiri, it was noticed that the students still have difficulties in improving their speaking skill. The fact is that the students often made mistakes in doing the speaking activity conducted by the teacher. It was also caused by some weaknesses of the teaching-learning process and the frequence of the teaching process. During the pre-observation, it was also noticed that there were some problems dealing with the teaching-learning process of speaking as follows:
1. The teaching of speaking is not communicative for students. The English teacher only play a dialogue or conversation and asked the students to repeat and write the utterances that speakers uttered without communicative activities which could give the students understanding about the content of the dialogue itself. As a result the students could not have the receptive skill and the productive skill as the skills in speaking.
2. The process activities were dominated by some talkative students, there were only little opportunities for unconfident students to practice their English or share their problems in the speaking activities. As an effect, the students’ abilities to memorize and pronounce new vocabularies as well as using sentence patterns were low.
3. The students were not enthusiastic and interested in joining the speaking activities. Only few students had great willingness to speak up voluntarily. Most of them were passive, because the method is bored.
These cases faced by the first grade of SMP Negeri 1 Wonogiri might occur because the teaching approach used by the teacher does not motivate students for engaging the students in the speaking activities. Moreover, the students are bored with the habitual teaching activities having described above. Therefore, the teacher has to be able to use her creativity to establish enjoyable and motivating classroom environment. One of the ways is by applying the teaching approach which can meet with the students’ needs as well as the aim of language teaching, especially here is for teaching speaking.
English as international language has realized people as a vital medium of communication. In international congress and gatherings, English is more often used than any other language.
Nowadays, Globalization era has been in our surrounding, we must be brave to face it. The role of foreign language has been important at the time, especially English language as international language. We are encountered with condition that force us to be more transparant in understanding what is taking place on the other side of the earth. We are competition with the fast growing technology, while the distance among the countries is practically gone. There is nearly boundless relationship between two countries, what is happening now at one place in this world will be heard and known in seconds by the other people in far away of place. It means that we are facing hard competition and we may not left behind.
The development technology right now, on the way. It can influence on human life at all sectors. Information technology has been used from education sector until business, many information of intellectual, practical, technical, and entertainment are promoted on electronic audio visual as on television, radio, and internet.
Television as one of a prove of modern technology has given many advantages for human life. By watching television people can know everything about news, entertainments, etc in far away of place. And television has become an effective medium to transfer knowledge, information, and culture, habit even life style.
Most people in our environment think that development technology has brought more negative effect than the positive one, such as – television, internet, and VCD/DVD player.
Based on the description above, the writer is interested in conducting a study on “The Use of English Movies to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill” (A Classroom Action Research Conducted in SMP 1 Wonogiri at the First Grade in 2010/2011 Academic Year).
B. The Problems Statement
Based on the background of the study, some problems can be identified, related to students’ Speaking skill. The problems are:
1. Why do students in the first grade of SMP 1 Wonogiri still have difficulty in speaking skill?
2. Can Film improve students’ speaking skill?
3. How does the film improve students’ speaking skill?
C. The Purpose of the Research
In order to reach the expected goal, it will be impossible for the writer to solve all the stated problems. So this research is purposed :
1. To know why the students in the first grade of SMP 1 Wonogiri still have difficulty in speaking skill.
2. To find the evidence if western film or movies can improve students’ skill.
3. To explain how the film improve students’ speaking skills.
D. Benefits of the Research
The result of the study is expected to be able to give some advantages for the students, the teacher and the researcher. The following are some advantages of this study:
1. For the students
This study is expected to be able to improve the students’ speaking skill in an enjoyable classroom environment.
2. For the teacher
This study is expected to give consideration or alternative for the English teacher in understanding the concept of teaching speaking through theories stated in this study.
3. For the researcher
This study is expected to give the researcher a valuable experience which can be used for doing a better action research in the future.
In this chapter, the writer presents the theories that underlie the research related to the case that the writer wants to analyze, namely the use of English Movies to improve students’ speaking skill. The theory covers the concept of English movies, speaking skill, and the relationship between English movies and speaking skill.
A. The Concept of English Movie
1. The Definition of English Movie
Movie is one of entertainment which can not be separated in our life now. It is also become a medium to describe about human life and all aspect of problem; it can be retell a story or event in the last time. By watching movie, we can know about habit, culture or language in the world. Many people spend their time in front of television just to watch movie, entertainment, news etc. The reality, movie has great influence on audiences’ life because movie is universal form for communication.
From http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ film. (030511) “Film is a form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of image giving the illusion of continuous movement. “ While according to As Hornby (1995; 434) in Oxford Dictionary of Current English, said that: “Film is a story recorded as set of moving pictures to be shown on television or at the cinema “.
Based on the definitions, it can be concluded movie is a story etc recorded which is done by people and to be presented on television or at the cinema.
So, English movie is a story of western life (European or American) which has been presented on television or at the cinema and become entertainment.
English movie has important role to teach audiences how to pronounce the language or word correctly. By watching English movie are expected to students to imitate what the actors or actress said and increasing into their vocabulary and know how to pronounce correctly.
There are many benefits that can be achieved through watching movie. The first, watching is something enjoyable, moreover if we understand about it. by watching people can know the current things. English movie are very develop nowadays and known in Indonesia because of the effect of globalization era on information sector.
The second, watching English movie is very advantages for English students, not only as something enjoyable but also as motivation to learn English. Finally, the students can also learn a lot of things from watching English movie such as – pronunciation, vocabulary, style, intonation even western culture, habit etc.
As human being, we always get in touch with other people such as- our parent, friends, teachers and any body else wherever and whenever even foreigners. But how we do it? Surely, we carry it out by speaking, what sort of tools do we use to speak? to answer this question, every body is bound to know it obviously that we use language to speak and in speaking, we need the way of word or language is usually spoken that is called pronunciation. Pronunciation is a sound of a word or language in which the society are usually used as tool of communication.
According to J.D.O.Connor in Better English Pronunciation said that: “In one sense there are as many different kinds of English as there are speakers of it ; no two people speak exactly alike- we can always differences between them-and the pronunciation of English varies a great deal in different geographical area.”
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that the differences of English pronunciation can be caused by the habit where the people live or geographical area.
The fact that we always find when foreigners are speaking in English, they have different pronunciation, intonation and etc. the listeners can predict where they come from. We can know them how they speak, either Australian, British or American.
In communication, we must always pay attention the aspect of pronunciation: sound, stress, rhythm, and intonation. So, pronunciation is used to more clearly communication or conversation. A speaker knows how to pronounce the sound correctly. For incorrect pronunciation makes the listeners boring, unpleasant feeling, not interested. It might cause also loosing the listener’s attention.
As human being, we always find diversity of culture, habit, character, behavior and language. Diversity makes us know how to adapt and makes relationship with other people. The important thing in diversity how to respect each other and mutual understanding.
Everyone has difference habit; it is easy to makes social conflict. If there are not mutual understanding and tolerance each other, one of the ways to get mutual understanding by learning a habit in environment, such as - daily language which is used as tool of communication. Habit can be caused by environment, life style, etc. in this chapter there are many definition of habit. From http. : //www.bart leby.co m/61/habit is (a) A recurrent, often unconscious pattern of behavior that is acquired through frequent repetition, (b) An established disposition of mind or character. According to As Horn by (1995; 533) in Oxford Dictionary said that: “Habit is a thing that person does often and almost without thinking”
Based on the definitions, it can be concluded that habit is all activities that done repeatedly for a long time without thinking. According to J.D.O. Connor in Better English pronunciation said that: “Language starts with the ear. When a baby stars to talk he does it by hearing the sound his mother makes and imitating them“. So, it can be concluded that Language is habit:
a. Speaking is mouth-action: so, you must use your mouth.
b. Reading is mouth and eye-action: so, you must use your mouth.
c. Listening is ear-action: so, you must use your ear.
d. Writing is hand-action: so, must use your action.
Someone can speak depend on hearing, but just hearing, it is not enough, she or he must listen to it, and it is not for the meaning but for the sound of it. It means that language is habit. Make it habit, she or he will get it. If she or he wants to speak fluently she or he must has habit in speaking. Speaking is mouth-action, being fussy will make better in speaking.
It is also needed more practice and a great deal of patience in learning English as foreign language. Environment has important role to be success in learning language, because a good environment is not a luxury, but a necessity. It means that learning language needs a habit in environment. So, to success in learning language, we must live in area in which the language is used.
B. Speaking Skill
1. The Concept of Speaking
a. The Definition of Speaking
As everybody knows, language is a means of communication. For building a good communication, people must have a good speaking skill. To know about the notion of speaking itself, the following are the definition of speaking stated by some experts. According to O’Malley speaking is an example of a complex cognitive skill that can be differentiated into various hierarchical sub skills, some of which might require controlled processing while others could be processed automatically. It means that speaking skill is actually a complex skill which sometimes needs a control in processing it but sometimes it can exist automatically without control.
Another expert defines speaking in the usage sense as simply the physical embodiment of abstract systems which involve the manifestation either of the phonological system or of the grammatical system of the language or both. In the sense of use, he also defines speaking as part of reciprocal exchange in which both reception and production play a part. Those definitions show that actually speaking is the form of abstract systems involving both phonological and grammatical system of the language which is produced in a reciprocal exchange in which both reception and production play a part.
Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that speaking is a complex cognitive skill which demands fluency, intelligibility, appropriateness, and accuracy in its process.
b. The Skills in Speaking
The skills in speaking can be divided into two skills; namely, productive skill and receptive skill which are creative process made by participants in an interaction. Productive skill is the skill in producing the language actively, while receptive skill is the skill to listen the language produced by the speaker with understanding.
c. The Kinds of Speaking
1). Impromptu Speaking
This kind of speaking is done on the spur of the moment with no opportunity for preparation. Furthermore, this is also natural and enjoyable. It will help the speakers to gain poise in speaking before a group. Moreover, it will help them to them to plan and share their ideas as they speak, a valuable skill in all speaking situation. Most important, it will help speakers to develop standards to use in evaluating more formal speeches, offering constructive criticism to each other, and will help them to improve their speaking skill. This type of speaking can be found all the time, most our conversations with friends, parents, teachers, employers, etc. People make these talks at work, home, school, parties, etc. These impromptu talks night include answering questions, giving opinions, or sharing our knowledge about many topics with people on daily basis.
2). Extemporaneous Speaking
In extemporaneous speaking, the speakers know beforehand about the subject on which they may be called on to speak. This kind of speaking can be the most effective of all types. It has most of the advantages of impromptu speaking without the possible disadvantages of being inadequately informed. Because speakers know the subject, they are not grouping for ideas. Because the speeches have been planned but they have not been memorized, speaking will seem spontaneous and natural. If audience reaction is not what speakers have anticipated, they may re-explain a point or adopt their speech as necessary.
2. The Concept of Teaching Speaking
A good speaking skill will be achieved through a successful speaking activity created in the teaching of speaking. To achieve a successful speaking activity in the teaching of speaking, teachers should know the types of classroom speaking performance, roles of teachers, problems in speaking activity, problem solutions in speaking activity, and the criteria of a successful speaking activity. The following are the detail explanation:
a. The Types of Classroom Speaking Performance
Brown states that there are six types of classroom speaking performance:
In imitative types, learners spend their time to initiate speech, for example, they are practicing an intonation contour, trying to pinpoint a certain vowel sound, etc. Intonation of these kinds is carried out not the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form. A type which can be concluded in these types and can be classified in the communicative language classroom is drilling. Drills offer students an opportunity to listen and to repeat certain string of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty – either phonological or grammatical.
Intensive type is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated or it can be even form part of some pair work activity.
Responsive is short replies to teacher or students initiated questions or comments which are usually sufficient and do not extend in dialogue.
4). Transactional (dialogue)
Transactional is extended form of responsive language. Transactional dialogue is not just limited to give the short respond but it can convey or exchange specific information.
5). Interpersonal (dialogue)
Interpersonal dialogue is designed for the purpose of maintaining social relationship than for the transmission of fact or information. This conversation involves some or all the following factors:
1. a causal register
2. colloquial language
3. emotionally charge language
b. Teacher Roles
According to Byrne, the teachers also need to know their roles in teaching speaking. They have specific roles at different stages, as follows:
1) The presenting stage (when the teachers introduce something new to be learned), the teachers play a role as informant.
2) The practice stage (when the teachers allow the learners to work under their direction), the teachers have a role as conductor and monitor.
3) The production stage (when the teachers give the learners opportunity to work on their own).
Besides these three roles of each stage, there is another key role that cuts across them: namely, the teachers as motivator. The teachers must be able to motivate their students in order to arouse their interest and involve them in what they are doing. There are some factors which determine their ability to motivate their students, namely: their performance (the mastery of teaching skills, the selection and presentation of topics and activities, the teacher’s personality).
C. The Relationship Between English Movies And Speaking Skill.
Language is very important for human life. English language is one of the tools of communication in international community. Therefore, English is needed here because not only English is used to communicate in international community, but also the fact that this language is mostly needed in transferring the knowledge of modern technology, scientific publications, books, newspaper and magazine.
In learning a language especially in conversation, it is needed a good pronunciation. In the other word, a good pronunciation will influence on a good conversation.
Learning English needs some goods ways to understand more easily. There are many ways to study English; one of the ways is by watching English movie.
It is necessity to consider the role of watching English movie. By watching English movie, the student does not only get an entertainment, but also can learn English language. More than that, English movie is able to make the situation enjoyable, pleasurable, and interesting. Watching English movie will be an effective medium to encourage the students in learning English especially in conversation with right pronunciation.
Learning English by watching movies is learning by input. The first learning process is get lots of correct English sentences into our head. Then we can imitate them and we can make our own sentences. And isn't that why we are learning English to be able to make our own sentences? That is why watching movies is such a great way to learn English.
We can learn more about how getting correct sentences into our head improves our English in our introduction to input. Of course, there are important differences between movies and books. With books, we learn how native speakers write in English. With movies, we learn how they speak English.
A. Research Method
1. The Definition of Action Research
The method used in this research is action research. There are various definitions of action research stated by some experts. Kemmis as quoted by Hopkins gives the definition of action research as follows:
Action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participators in a social situation (including education) in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practice, (b) their understanding of these practices and (c) the situation in which practices are carried out.
While in Mills’ point of view, action research is any systematic inquiry conducted by teacher researchers, principals, school counselors, or other stakeholders in teaching/learning environment to gather information about the ways how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how well their students learn. Moreover, Nunan argues that action research has distinctive feature that is those affected by planned changes have the primary responsibility for deciding on courses of critically informed action which seem likely to lead to improvement, for evaluating the results of strategies tried out in practice.
Burns makes some characteristics of action research taken from some experts’ definition as follows:
1. action research is contextual, small-scale and localized. It identifies and investigates problems within a specific situation.
2. it is evaluating and reflective as it aims to bring about change and improvement in practice.
3. it is participatory as it provides for collaborative investigation by teams of colleagues, practitioners and researchers.
4. changes in practice are based on the collection of information or data which provides the impetus for changes.
Based on several definitions stated by some experts, it can be concluded that action research is any systematic inquiry undertaken by participators in a social situation (including education) which is directed towards greater understanding and improvement of practices where those practices are carried out.
2. The Model of Action Research
The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1988) who state that action research occurs through a dynamic and complementary process which consists of four fundamental steps in a spiraling process. They are as follow:
Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening.
Act to implement the plant.
Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs.
Reflect these effects as the basis for further planning.
The spiral model can be illustrated as follows:
Figure 1. The Model of Action Research of Kemmis and Mc Taggart
3. The Procedure of Action Research
In this classroom action research, the action research is done collaboratively. The writer has a role as an observe researcher who implements the plan of the action research while her collaborative observers as the observer of the research. In this classroom action research, each procedure takes six steps that form one cycle. Those six steps are as follows:
a. identifying the problem
The writer identifies the problem before planning the action. The problem refers to students’ low speaking skill. It was known after the writer interviewed with the teacher and did observation in the teaching-learning process.
b. planning the action
The writer as the observe researcher prepares everything related to the action as follows:
1). Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in doing the action.
2). Preparing sheets for classroom observation.
3). Preparing teaching aids like the projector, computer, and movies.
4). Preparing a test.
c. implementing the action
The plan made is implemented in the teaching learning process. The activity of improving students’ speaking skill uses movie.
d. observing/ monitoring the action
The writer observes all the activities in teaching-learning process while her collaborative observer helps to observe the teaching-learning process conducted in the class.
e. reflecting the result of the observation
In conducting the evaluation process, the teacher gives pre-test before starting the action and at the end of cycle one, students are given post-test. The test is in the form of speaking test. In this test, the students are asked to answer the following questions orally in order to know how well their intelligibility, vocabulary adequacy and accuracy.
After giving the test, the writer analyzes the result of the test to know the students’ speaking skill. The teacher then makes an analysis based on the result of the test has been done by the students and her observation during the action being carried out to make a reflection about what she has being done so far. It is also claimed to find the weaknesses of the activities has been done.
In this action research, there is a standard to stop the cycle. The cycle is stopped when the indicator can be achieved. The indicators are the speaking activity which is conducted in the teaching-learning process can achieve the criteria of a successful speaking activity and there is a significant difference between the students’ speaking skill before and after the action.
B. Technique for Collecting Data
The techniques for collecting data used in this research are observational and non observational techniques. The following are the detail explanation of each technique :
1. Observational techniques
The observation is done by the researcher as the teacher and the collaborative observers. Students’ behavior and students’ activities are observed during speaking class. The observation is focused on the development of students’ speaking skill by using Task-Based Language Teaching. It is recorded on writing form called field notes. Besides, the researcher also uses researcher’s diary and photographs.
2. Non-observational techniques
The non-observational techniques which are used for collecting data are speaking tests, interview and students’ diary.
C. Technique for Analyzing Data
The data which are collected are analyzed by qualitative and quantitative ways. The qualitative data analyses are used to analyze the data that are taken during the teaching learning process. The writer uses the indicators that show the improvement of the students’ speaking skill.
The quantitative data analyses are used to analyze data from the result of the teaching learning process. It is done to compare the students’ speaking skill before and after the action or the result of pre-test and post-test.
http. : //www.bart leby.co m/61/habit
Post by Agung Marsudi
EnglisH Department Univet